mongodb 4.0副本集搭建的全过程

    前言

    近期有同学问mongodb副本集难不难部署,我的回答是不难,很快,几分钟搞定,比mysql MHA简单的不止一点半点。 那么到底如何部署呢?请看下文。

    1.  准备工作

    1.1 下载软件

    选择版本并下载mongodb的软件,注意操作系统版本等。本次我选用的是percona分支的mongodb 4.2.8版本搭建,操作系统为centos6

    
    cd /usr/local/
    wget https://www.percona.com/downloads/percona-server-mongodb-LATEST/percona-server-mongodb-4.2.8-8/binary/tarball/percona-server-mongodb-4.2.8-8-centos6-x86_64.tar.gz
    tar -zxvf percona-server-mongodb-4.2.8-8-centos6-x86_64.tar.gz
    ln -s percona-server-mongodb-4.2.8-8 mongodb

    1.2  规划各节点角色

    各节点角色如下

    IP  port  role
    192.168.128.208 27017 PRIMARY
    192.168.128.209 27017 SECONDARY
    192.168.128.209 28017 ARBITER

    2  部署

    2.1  创建各节点相关目录

    创建数据目录、日志目录等相关目录

    
    [root@m1 ~]# mkdir -p /data/mongodb/27017/{data,logs,tmp,etc,keyfile}
    [root@m1 ~]# cd /data/mongodb/27017/
    [root@m1 27017]# ll
    总用量 20
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 8月 7 16:59 data
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 8月 7 16:59 etc
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 8月 7 16:59 keyfile
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 8月 7 16:59 logs
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 8月 7 16:59 tmp

    2.2  配置文件

    创建配置文件,并添加对应的配置信息,注意仲裁节点的端口

    
    [root@m1 27017]# cd /data/mongodb/27017/etc/
    [root@m1 etc]# vim mongod.conf
    添加如下内容
    
    storage:
     dbPath: /data/mongodb/27017/data
     journal:
     enabled: true
    systemLog:
     destination: file
     logAppend: true
     path: /data/mongodb/27017/logs/mongod.log
    processManagement:
     fork: true
     pidFilePath: /data/mongodb/27017/tmp/mongod.pid
    net:
     port: 27017
     bindIp: 0.0.0.0replication:  replSetName: "test1"     # 副本集名称

    2.3   启动各节点

    以其中一个节点为例,其他节点修改对应配置文件即可

    
    [root@m1 local]# /usr/local/mongodb/bin/mongod -f /data/mongodb/27017/etc/mongod.conf 
    about to fork child process, waiting until server is ready for connections.
    forked process: 30019
    child process started successfully, parent exiting

    2.4  初始化副本集

    初始化副本集,指定各节点id及角色,注意副本集的名称和配置文件里一致。

    在任意节点执行如下语句

    
    > use admin
    switched to db admin
    > rs.initiate( {
    ... _id: "test1",
    ... members: [
    ... { _id: 0, host: "192.168.128.208:27017" },
    ... { _id: 1, host: "192.168.128.209:27017" },
    ... { _id: 2, host: "192.168.128.209:28017",arbiterOnly:true }
    ... ] })
    {
     "ok" : 1,
     "$clusterTime" : {
      "clusterTime" : Timestamp(1596792682, 1),
      "signature" : {
       "hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
       "keyId" : NumberLong(0)
      }
     },
     "operationTime" : Timestamp(1596792682, 1)
    }

    完成后可以查看各集群状态,如下,可见当前192.168.128.208:27017 为PRIMARY节点

    
    test1:PRIMARY> rs.status()
    {
     "set" : "test1",
     "date" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:24.454Z"),
     "myState" : 1,
     "term" : NumberLong(1),
     "syncingTo" : "",
     "syncSourceHost" : "",
     "syncSourceId" : -1,
     "heartbeatIntervalMillis" : NumberLong(2000),
     "majorityVoteCount" : 2,
     "writeMajorityCount" : 2,
     "optimes" : {
      "lastCommittedOpTime" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
       "t" : NumberLong(1)
      },
      "lastCommittedWallTime" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.663Z"),
      "readConcernMajorityOpTime" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
       "t" : NumberLong(1)
      },
      "readConcernMajorityWallTime" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.663Z"),
      "appliedOpTime" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
       "t" : NumberLong(1)
      },
      "durableOpTime" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
       "t" : NumberLong(1)
      },
      "lastAppliedWallTime" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.663Z"),
      "lastDurableWallTime" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.663Z")
     },
     "lastStableRecoveryTimestamp" : Timestamp(1596798513, 1),
     "lastStableCheckpointTimestamp" : Timestamp(1596798513, 1),
     "electionCandidateMetrics" : {
      "lastElectionReason" : "electionTimeout",
      "lastElectionDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T09:31:33.409Z"),
      "electionTerm" : NumberLong(1),
      "lastCommittedOpTimeAtElection" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(0, 0),
       "t" : NumberLong(-1)
      },
      "lastSeenOpTimeAtElection" : {
       "ts" : Timestamp(1596792682, 1),
       "t" : NumberLong(-1)
      },
      "numVotesNeeded" : 2,
      "priorityAtElection" : 1,
      "electionTimeoutMillis" : NumberLong(10000),
      "numCatchUpOps" : NumberLong(0),
      "newTermStartDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T09:31:33.444Z"),
      "wMajorityWriteAvailabilityDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T09:31:34.050Z")
     },
     "members" : [
      {
       "_id" : 0,
       "name" : "192.168.128.208:27017",
       "health" : 1,
       "state" : 1,
       "stateStr" : "PRIMARY",
       "uptime" : 5950,
       "optime" : {
        "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
        "t" : NumberLong(1)
       },
       "optimeDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23Z"),
       "syncingTo" : "",
       "syncSourceHost" : "",
       "syncSourceId" : -1,
       "infoMessage" : "",
       "electionTime" : Timestamp(1596792693, 1),
       "electionDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T09:31:33Z"),
       "configVersion" : 1,
       "self" : true,
       "lastHeartbeatMessage" : ""
      },
      {
       "_id" : 1,
       "name" : "192.168.128.209:27017",
       "health" : 1,
       "state" : 2,
       "stateStr" : "SECONDARY",
       "uptime" : 5882,
       "optime" : {
        "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
        "t" : NumberLong(1)
       },
       "optimeDurable" : {
        "ts" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
        "t" : NumberLong(1)
       },
       "optimeDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23Z"),
       "optimeDurableDate" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23Z"),
       "lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.672Z"),
       "lastHeartbeatRecv" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:22.804Z"),
       "pingMs" : NumberLong(0),
       "lastHeartbeatMessage" : "",
       "syncingTo" : "192.168.128.208:27017",
       "syncSourceHost" : "192.168.128.208:27017",
       "syncSourceId" : 0,
       "infoMessage" : "",
       "configVersion" : 1
      },
      {
       "_id" : 2,
       "name" : "192.168.128.209:28017",
       "health" : 1,
       "state" : 7,
       "stateStr" : "ARBITER",
       "uptime" : 5882,
       "lastHeartbeat" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:23.672Z"),
       "lastHeartbeatRecv" : ISODate("2020-08-07T11:09:22.952Z"),
       "pingMs" : NumberLong(0),
       "lastHeartbeatMessage" : "",
       "syncingTo" : "",
       "syncSourceHost" : "",
       "syncSourceId" : -1,
       "infoMessage" : "",
       "configVersion" : 1
      }
     ],
     "ok" : 1,
     "$clusterTime" : {
      "clusterTime" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1),
      "signature" : {
       "hash" : BinData(0,"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA="),
       "keyId" : NumberLong(0)
      }
     },
     "operationTime" : Timestamp(1596798563, 1)
    }
    test1:PRIMARY>

    3  修改为认证模式

    为考虑安全性等,需要开启认证模式(需要通过用户名/密码方式登录)

    3.1 创建用户

    创建超级管理员账号

    
    test1:PRIMARY> db.createUser({user: "root", pwd: "Root#123", roles: [{role: "root", db: "admin"}]})
    Successfully added user: {
     "user" : "root",
     "roles" : [
      {
       "role" : "root",
       "db" : "admin"
      }
     ]
    }

    3.2  创建key文件

    在主库上执行脚本生成key文件,然后将结拷贝到另外2个节点

    
    [root@m1 mongodb]# cd /data/mongodb/27017/keyfile/
    [root@m1 keyfile]# openssl rand -base64 756 > mongo.key
    [root@m1 keyfile]# chmod 600 mongo.key # 必须修改为600权限,否则无法启动

    以上完成后,将文件复制到另外2个节点

    3.3  修改配置文件

    配置文件中 添加如下内容,注意不同节点的文件路径

    
    security:
     authorization: enabled
     clusterAuthMode: keyFile
     keyFile: /data/mongodb/27017/keyfile/mongo.key

    3.4  重启后并用认证模式登陆

    
    # 关闭mongodb
    [root@m1 keyfile]# /usr/local/mongodb/bin/mongod -f /data/mongodb/27017/etc/mongod.conf -shutdown
    killing process with pid: 30675
    # 启动mongodb
    [root@m1 keyfile]# /usr/local/mongodb/bin/mongod -f /data/mongodb/27017/etc/mongod.conf about to fork child process, waiting until server is ready for connections.
    forked process: 2430
    
    child process started successfully, parent exiting
    
    # 认证模式登陆
    [root@m1 keyfile]# 
    [root@m1 keyfile]# /usr/local/mongodb/bin/mongo -u root -p 'Root#123' --authenticationDatabase admin

    至此,mongodb 副本集搭建完毕,你会了吗?

    总结

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